Weekly Questions and Hardware Thread – April 24, 2019

Welcome to r/linux! If you're new to Linux or trying to get started this thread is for you. Get help here or as always, check out r/linuxquestions or r/linux4noobs

This megathread is for all your question needs. As we don't allow questions on r/linux outside of this megathread, please consider using r/linuxquestions or r/linux4noobs for the best solution to your problem.

Ask your hardware requests here too or try r/linuxhardware!

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Announcing the first pre-release of Cage, the Wayland kiosk

Today I released the first pre-release of Cage, my Wayland kiosk. A kiosk is a window manager (in the X11 world) or compositor (in the Wayland world) that is designed for a user experience wherein user interaction and activities outside the scope of the running application are prevented. That is, a kiosk compositor displays a single maximized application at a time and prevents the user from interacting with anything but this application.

Hence, Cage is quite a niche project and not something you'd use for your day-to-day computing. I hope some may find it interesting regardless, and I would love to hear any feedback or use-cases you may come up with 🙂

You can read the announcement here or you can read more about Cage in general on its project page.

submitted by /u/fallenunia
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PSA: uMatrix is leaking cookies on certain Chromium versions.

I know this might not fully be related to Linux, but I still think people here need to hear about this.

tl;dr uMatrix can leak cookies despite disabling them.


Install the latest dev build to mitigate.

Go here to test. It should say "No cookie found. Try reloading the page." under "Cookies sent to the server by your browser", if it doesn't, then that means you (inadvertently) have cookies enabled.

submitted by /u/justajunior
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LabPlot is a KDE utility that helps graph and analyse scientific data. New version 2.6 brings histograms, support for the MQTT protocol, better data analysis functions, and more improvements and features.

submitted by /u/Bro666
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Linux Experiences/Rants or Education/Certifications thread – April 22, 2019

Welcome to r/linux rants and experiences! This megathread is also to hear opinions from anyone just starting out with Linux or those that have used Linux (GNU or otherwise) for a long time.

Let us know what's annoying you, whats making you happy, or something that you want to get out to r/linux but didn't make the cut into a full post of it's own.

For those looking for certifications please use this megathread to ask about how to get certified whether it's for the business world or for your own satisfaction. Be sure to check out r/linuxadmin for more discussion in the SysAdmin world!

Please keep questions in r/linuxquestions, r/linux4noobs, or the Wednesday automod thread.

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How To Install Ubuntu 18.04 From Scratch

About Ubuntu 18.04

Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver was officially released on 26 April  2018. Notable features include GNOME 3.28, improved boot speed, minimal installation option, VLC as defualt,  LibreOffice 6.x, automated security updates, and only releasing 64-bit versions.

How To Download

This tutorial is for the Desktop version of Ubuntu 18.04 and you will want to download that version at Ubuntu.com. You can direct download from Ubuntu or choose from several different mirrors or even use torrent which can be much faster.  The ISO is about 1 gigabyte so it can take a few minutes or over an hour depending on your connection speed.

Take note that when you go the the download page, Ubuntu will ask for a financial contribution.  You are welcome to give as much as you want or you can choose to not donate anything.  You level or contribution whether it be nothing or a large amount will not affect your Ubuntu download.

When you download the ISO file make sure you put it in a folder you remember as you will need to know where it is for the next step.

The title of the file currently is ‘ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso’.  Over time this may change as Ubuntu make occasional update to Ubuntu 18.04.  So so it may change to ‘ubuntu-18.04.2-desktop-amd64.iso’ and so forth.

Create Media

You will then need to burn you downloaded ISO currently titled ‘ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso’ onto a usable media so that you may install Ubuntu 18.04.  This file will be in the folder located where you downloaded above.  The two practical methods are DVD or USB.

Depending on your operating system, “burning ISOs” require different steps.  Furthermore burning an ISO to a DVD or USB is different as well.  Below are links to instruct you how to burn ISOs for Windows and OSX.

For other Linux distros besides Ubuntu please consult your distro documentation for burning ISOs.

Install Ubuntu 18.04

This warning does not apply to the "mechanics" of your computer components but to the data on your hard drive as it will erase your current data.  Please make sure you backup data that you may want to save, use a hard drive that you do not mind to lose data, new hard drive or new computer.
1. Shutdown you computer and make sure you are connected to the Internet if possible.

2. Insert either your formatted DVD or USB media into the computer.

3. Restart the computer, immediately after press F1, F2, F10, F11 or ESC (this varies by manufacturer and you can experiment by restarting multiple times) to get to the boot menu.  Select you media and enter to boot into the media. 

3a. As a secondary method you can do the above to boot into the system Bios and change the boot order and select to boot DVD, USB then your hard drive.  This is an advanced method and should be exercised with caution as it could cause your system to be unbootable or unstable.
4. Once your computer has booted to your DVD or USB media it will take a few minutes and you will eventually see a screen that offers you an option to "Try Ubuntu" or "Install Ubuntu". If this does not happen the most likely cause is that you haven't formatted your installation media correcly and you need to go back to Create Media.

4a. For the purposes of this tutorial select Install Ubuntu.  You can select Try Ubuntu and play around with it and Install Ubuntu whenever you want inside "Try Ubuntu" and you will get the same resulting starting at Step 5.  It is completely your choice.

try ubuntu install ubuntu

5. Just hit continue. If you are using English, just hit continue, if another language, select that language.

ubuntu welcome

6. Choose your keyboard layout.  Unless you language is anything other than English, just hit continue.

ubuntu keyboard

7. Install updates and software.  You should do a Normal installation, Download updates while installing Ubuntu and install third-party software for graphics and wi-fi hardware and additional media formats. If you are not connecting to the Internet the last two options should not be selected as it will not be possible for them to work.

ubuntu update and software

8. As stated above you will be losing all your data so Erase disk and install Ubuntu. This is very important select the next two options, Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation for security and Use LVM with the new Ubuntu installation. This keeps you hard drive and information contained within secure. 
8a. If you see anything other than below like Delete Windows and Install Ubuntu or Shrink Windows and Install Ubuntu Alongside, etc. that means you have another operating system on your disk.  This tutorial is for installing Ubuntu from scratch and you can safely select Erase disk and install Ubuntu. If you want to dual boot Ubuntu with Windows or another operating system, STOP now.  This is not the tutorial for you. 

ubuntu security

9. You now need to choose a password or security key.  You probably will use a password that you are familiar with or have used in the past but may I suggest you start using stronger passwords.  Try a 5 or 6 word diceware password. If you are using a hard drive that has contained data before select Overwrite empty disk space

security key

10. Now simply confirm your choice.  

confirm ubun

11. Select your location.  If you are connected to the Internet, Ubuntu will most likely select a large city in your time zone. If so this will be fine.  If not, click on the map near your location and/or select any city in your time zone (and make sure they observer daylight savings time the same as you). 

location ubuntu

12. Set your username and password. Your Name - your first name is fine. Your computer's name - (see 12a). Pick a username - can be your name in lowercase, or however you like it, or whatever username you like to use. Password - You may want to use the same password as Step 9 as long as it is strong of use a different one. Once again might you consider a 5 or 6 word diceware password.

12a. When setting Your computer's name, consider a short, random non-identifiable name because it is transmitted over the internet.  ttt is better than texas, brick is better than bob, just is better than johnson-pc. Use diceware password for word ideas.

username password ubuntu

13. Depending on the speed of your processor, memory and hard drive type, it should take anywhere from just a few minutes to up to half an hour to finish.  If there are any prompts, just hit continue.  At the end simply restart and it will ask you to remove your installation media.  

install ubuntu

You have installed Ubuntu 18.04. Congratulations!

Manjaro – Arch Linux CLI Cheat Sheet

Below you will find an easy to use Manjaro CLI (command line interface) cheat sheet. Manjaro Linux is based on Arch Linux so this is an Arch Linux CLI cheat sheet as well. This list should contain most commands that you may use and are sorted by category. If you would like to see a command added or see an error please leave a comment.

Access Rights

sudo command # executes command as root
sudo -k # empties password cache
sudo visudo # edits /etc/sudoers
passwd # changes user password
chown owner:group # changes owner and group of file
chmod permissions file # changes the file permissions
      to set permissions in octal mode:
      4 (read) 2 (write) 1 (execute)
      example - 755 read-write-execute for owner
      amd read-execute for group and others
ls -lh [dir] # displays files and permissions [of directory]

[use man command for more information]

Files and Directories

cd dir # changes the working directory
cd .. # changes to the parent directory
ls # lists directory contents
ls -a # also lists the hidden files
cp target file # copies the file
cp -r target directory # copies the directory
mv target source # move/rename target source
rm -r dir # removes directory recursively
ln -s file link # removes directory recursively
mount -t type dev path # mounts file system
mount -o loop iso path # mounts iso image
/home/user # home directory of user
/etc # directory with global configurations

[use man command for more information]


ifconfig # displays network information
iwconfig # displays wireless network information
iwlist scan # lists wireless access points
/etc/rd.d/network ifup interface
/etc/rd.d/network ifdown interface
/etc/rd.d/iptables {start|stop|restart}
ufw enable # enables the firewall [package Community: ufw]
ufw default allow/deny # allows/denies all incoming traffic
ufw status # displays firewall status and rules
ufw allow/deny port # allows/denies incoming traffic on the specified port
ufw allow/deny from ip # allows/denies incoming traffic from specified IP address

[use man command for more information]

System and Screen

uname -r # displays the kernel version
uname -a # displays all the kernel version
df # reports file system disk space usage
top # displays system tasks
procinfo # displays system information [package Core:procinfo-ng]
pstree # display a tree of processes
Ctrl+Alt+Fn # switches to tty n
Ctrl+Alt+F7 # switches to the X session
rc.d start daemon # starts a daemon
rc.d stop daemon # stops a daemon
rc.d restart daemon #restarts a daemon
shutdown -h now # shuts the sytem down
shutdown -r now # restarts the system

[use man command for more information]

Package Management

pacman -Si pckg # shows package information
pacman - S pckg # installs a package
pacman -Rns pckg # removes a package, its dependencies and configuration files
pacman -Syu # complete package upgrade
pacman -Ss name # searches for packages
pacman -Q pckg # diplays installed packages
pacman -Ql pckg # lists all package files
pacman -U pckg.tar.xz # installs a package from a file
pacman -Qm # lists manually installed packages
yaourt -S pckg # installs a package from AUR [package AUR: yaourt]
yaourt -Syua # complete package upgrade including packages from AUR

man pacman.conf/makepkg # learn more about pacman
* use pacman as root or with sudo
 use yaourt as non-privileged user