How To Install Ubuntu 18.04 From Scratch

About Ubuntu 18.04

Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver was officially released on 26 April  2018. Notable features include GNOME 3.28, improved boot speed, minimal installation option, VLC as defualt,  LibreOffice 6.x, automated security updates, and only releasing 64-bit versions.

How To Download

This tutorial is for the Desktop version of Ubuntu 18.04 and you will want to download that version at Ubuntu.com. You can direct download from Ubuntu or choose from several different mirrors or even use torrent which can be much faster.  The ISO is about 1 gigabyte so it can take a few minutes or over an hour depending on your connection speed.

Take note that when you go the the download page, Ubuntu will ask for a financial contribution.  You are welcome to give as much as you want or you can choose to not donate anything.  You level or contribution whether it be nothing or a large amount will not affect your Ubuntu download.

When you download the ISO file make sure you put it in a folder you remember as you will need to know where it is for the next step.

The title of the file currently is ‘ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso’.  Over time this may change as Ubuntu make occasional update to Ubuntu 18.04.  So so it may change to ‘ubuntu-18.04.2-desktop-amd64.iso’ and so forth.

Create Media

You will then need to burn you downloaded ISO currently titled ‘ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso’ onto a usable media so that you may install Ubuntu 18.04.  This file will be in the folder located where you downloaded above.  The two practical methods are DVD or USB.

Depending on your operating system, “burning ISOs” require different steps.  Furthermore burning an ISO to a DVD or USB is different as well.  Below are links to instruct you how to burn ISOs for Windows and OSX.

For other Linux distros besides Ubuntu please consult your distro documentation for burning ISOs.

Install Ubuntu 18.04
WARNING - AFTER THIS POINT YOU WILL LOSE ALL OF THE DATA ON YOUR HARD DRIVE

This warning does not apply to the "mechanics" of your computer components but to the data on your hard drive as it will erase your current data.  Please make sure you backup data that you may want to save, use a hard drive that you do not mind to lose data, new hard drive or new computer.
1. Shutdown you computer and make sure you are connected to the Internet if possible.

2. Insert either your formatted DVD or USB media into the computer.

3. Restart the computer, immediately after press F1, F2, F10, F11 or ESC (this varies by manufacturer and you can experiment by restarting multiple times) to get to the boot menu.  Select you media and enter to boot into the media. 

3a. As a secondary method you can do the above to boot into the system Bios and change the boot order and select to boot DVD, USB then your hard drive.  This is an advanced method and should be exercised with caution as it could cause your system to be unbootable or unstable.
4. Once your computer has booted to your DVD or USB media it will take a few minutes and you will eventually see a screen that offers you an option to "Try Ubuntu" or "Install Ubuntu". If this does not happen the most likely cause is that you haven't formatted your installation media correcly and you need to go back to Create Media.

4a. For the purposes of this tutorial select Install Ubuntu.  You can select Try Ubuntu and play around with it and Install Ubuntu whenever you want inside "Try Ubuntu" and you will get the same resulting starting at Step 5.  It is completely your choice.

try ubuntu install ubuntu

5. Just hit continue. If you are using English, just hit continue, if another language, select that language.

ubuntu welcome

6. Choose your keyboard layout.  Unless you language is anything other than English, just hit continue.

ubuntu keyboard

7. Install updates and software.  You should do a Normal installation, Download updates while installing Ubuntu and install third-party software for graphics and wi-fi hardware and additional media formats. If you are not connecting to the Internet the last two options should not be selected as it will not be possible for them to work.

ubuntu update and software

8. As stated above you will be losing all your data so Erase disk and install Ubuntu. This is very important select the next two options, Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation for security and Use LVM with the new Ubuntu installation. This keeps you hard drive and information contained within secure. 
8a. If you see anything other than below like Delete Windows and Install Ubuntu or Shrink Windows and Install Ubuntu Alongside, etc. that means you have another operating system on your disk.  This tutorial is for installing Ubuntu from scratch and you can safely select Erase disk and install Ubuntu. If you want to dual boot Ubuntu with Windows or another operating system, STOP now.  This is not the tutorial for you. 

ubuntu security

9. You now need to choose a password or security key.  You probably will use a password that you are familiar with or have used in the past but may I suggest you start using stronger passwords.  Try a 5 or 6 word diceware password. If you are using a hard drive that has contained data before select Overwrite empty disk space

security key

10. Now simply confirm your choice.  

confirm ubun

11. Select your location.  If you are connected to the Internet, Ubuntu will most likely select a large city in your time zone. If so this will be fine.  If not, click on the map near your location and/or select any city in your time zone (and make sure they observer daylight savings time the same as you). 

location ubuntu

12. Set your username and password. Your Name - your first name is fine. Your computer's name - (see 12a). Pick a username - can be your name in lowercase, or however you like it, or whatever username you like to use. Password - You may want to use the same password as Step 9 as long as it is strong of use a different one. Once again might you consider a 5 or 6 word diceware password.

12a. When setting Your computer's name, consider a short, random non-identifiable name because it is transmitted over the internet.  ttt is better than texas, brick is better than bob, just is better than johnson-pc. Use diceware password for word ideas.

username password ubuntu

13. Depending on the speed of your processor, memory and hard drive type, it should take anywhere from just a few minutes to up to half an hour to finish.  If there are any prompts, just hit continue.  At the end simply restart and it will ask you to remove your installation media.  

install ubuntu

You have installed Ubuntu 18.04. Congratulations!

Manjaro – Arch Linux CLI Cheat Sheet

Below you will find an easy to use Manjaro CLI (command line interface) cheat sheet. Manjaro Linux is based on Arch Linux so this is an Arch Linux CLI cheat sheet as well. This list should contain most commands that you may use and are sorted by category. If you would like to see a command added or see an error please leave a comment.

Access Rights

sudo command # executes command as root
sudo -k # empties password cache
sudo visudo # edits /etc/sudoers
passwd # changes user password
chown owner:group # changes owner and group of file
chmod permissions file # changes the file permissions
      to set permissions in octal mode:
      4 (read) 2 (write) 1 (execute)
      example - 755 read-write-execute for owner
      amd read-execute for group and others
ls -lh [dir] # displays files and permissions [of directory]

[use man command for more information]

Files and Directories

cd dir # changes the working directory
cd .. # changes to the parent directory
ls # lists directory contents
ls -a # also lists the hidden files
cp target file # copies the file
cp -r target directory # copies the directory
mv target source # move/rename target source
rm -r dir # removes directory recursively
ln -s file link # removes directory recursively
mount -t type dev path # mounts file system
mount -o loop iso path # mounts iso image
/home/user # home directory of user
/etc # directory with global configurations

[use man command for more information]

Network

ifconfig # displays network information
iwconfig # displays wireless network information
iwlist scan # lists wireless access points
/etc/rd.d/network ifup interface
/etc/rd.d/network ifdown interface
/etc/rd.d/iptables {start|stop|restart}
ufw enable # enables the firewall [package Community: ufw]
ufw default allow/deny # allows/denies all incoming traffic
ufw status # displays firewall status and rules
ufw allow/deny port # allows/denies incoming traffic on the specified port
ufw allow/deny from ip # allows/denies incoming traffic from specified IP address

[use man command for more information]

System and Screen

uname -r # displays the kernel version
uname -a # displays all the kernel version
df # reports file system disk space usage
top # displays system tasks
procinfo # displays system information [package Core:procinfo-ng]
pstree # display a tree of processes
Ctrl+Alt+Fn # switches to tty n
Ctrl+Alt+F7 # switches to the X session
rc.d start daemon # starts a daemon
rc.d stop daemon # stops a daemon
rc.d restart daemon #restarts a daemon
shutdown -h now # shuts the sytem down
shutdown -r now # restarts the system

[use man command for more information]

Package Management

pacman -Si pckg # shows package information
pacman - S pckg # installs a package
pacman -Rns pckg # removes a package, its dependencies and configuration files
pacman -Syu # complete package upgrade
pacman -Ss name # searches for packages
pacman -Q pckg # diplays installed packages
pacman -Ql pckg # lists all package files
pacman -U pckg.tar.xz # installs a package from a file
pacman -Qm # lists manually installed packages
yaourt -S pckg # installs a package from AUR [package AUR: yaourt]
yaourt -Syua # complete package upgrade including packages from AUR

man pacman.conf/makepkg # learn more about pacman
* use pacman as root or with sudo
 use yaourt as non-privileged user

 

The Most Popular Linux Distros Of 2018

2018 has come to a close and it is time to look back and see what were the 100 most popular Linux distros (distributions) of the past year.  We gathered our list from Distro Watch.  I find it amazing to see how Manjaro has come to dominate over the past year while Linux Mint has remained near the top.  Two dark horses that have made the top 5 are MX Linux and elementary while the once dominate Ubuntu has slipped to the number 5 spot.

Where is your Linux distro on the list?  What are your thoughts on the list and do you find any of the numbers surprising?

Here is the list:

 

Rank Distribution
1 Manjaro
2 Mint
3 elementary
4 MX Linux
5 Ubuntu
6 Debian
7 Solus
8 Fedora
9 openSUSE
10 Zorin
11 Antergos
12 CentOS
13 Arch
14 ReactOS
15 TrueOS
16 Kali
17 Lite
18 KDE neon
19 antiX
20 Lubuntu
21 PCLinuxOS
22 deepin
23 Endless
24 Peppermint
25 FreeBSD
26 SmartOS
27 Puppy
28 SparkyLinux
29 Ubuntu MATE
30 Parrot
31 Slackware
32 Mageia
33 Tails
34 Xubuntu
35 ArcoLinux
36 ArchLabs
37 Ubuntu Kylin
38 Q4OS
39 Bluestar
40 Bodhi
41 Archman
42 Devuan
43 Kubuntu
44 Voyager
45 Red Hat
46 Android-x86
47 Feren
48 Gentoo
49 Pop!_OS
50 LXLE
51 Slax
52 4MLinux
53 Nitrux
54 Robolinux
55 Ultimate
56 KaOS
57 Redcore
58 Netrunner
59 Ubuntu Budgie
60 KNOPPIX
61 Alpine
62 Qubes
63 Sabayon
64 SwagArch
65 ClearOS
66 Gecko
67 NixOS
68 DragonFly
69 GhostBSD
70 Ubuntu Studio
71 Neptune
72 ArchBang
73 Calculate
74 Trisquel
75 BlackArch
76 BunsenLabs
77 Scientific
78 Clonezilla
79 OpenBSD
80 Emmabuntüs
81 Pinguy
82 ROSA
83 siduction
84 AUSTRUMI
85 Tiny Core
86 NuTyX
87 Porteus
88 Raspbian
89 Container
90 Void
91 SteamOS
92 Absolute
93 BackBox
94 SolydXK
95 ExTiX
96 Oracle
97 Artix
98 Kodachi
99 Vector
100 Omarine

 

Zorin OS

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Debian, Ubuntu (LTS)
  • Origin: Ireland
  • Architecture: i386, x86_64
  • Desktop: GNOME, Xfce
  • Category: Beginners, Desktop, Live Medium
  • Status: Active
Distribution Zorin OS
Home Page http://www.zorin-os.com/
User Forums http://www.zoringroup.com/forum/viewforum.php?f=3
Screenshots http://zorin-os.com/gallery.html
Download Mirrors http://zorin-os.com/free.html

Aliases – Zorin, Zorin Linux

If you have any more information about Zorin OS please leave a comment or Contact Us.

Zevenet

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Debian
  • Origin: Spain
  • Architecture: i686
  • Desktop: No Desktop, WebUI
  • Category: Server, Specialist
  • Status: Active
Distribution Zevenet
Home Page https://www.zevenet.com/
User Forums https://groups.google.com/a/zevenet.com/forum/#!forum/zevenet-ce-users
Download Mirrors https://sourceforge.net/projects/zevenet/files/
Bug Tracker https://github.com/zevenet/zlb/issues

Aliases – Zevenet Linux

If you have any more information about Zevenet please leave a comment or Contact Us.

Zeroshell

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Independent
  • Origin: Italy
  • Architecture: armhf, i386, x86_64
  • Desktop: No Desktop, WebUI
  • Category: Firewall, Live Medium, Server
  • Status: Active
Distribution Zeroshell
Home Page http://www.zeroshell.org/
Mailing Lists http://www.zeroshell.org/mailinglist/
Documentation http://www.zeroshell.org/documentation/
Download Mirrors http://www.zeroshell.org/download/

Aliases – Zeroshell Linux

If you have any more information about Zeroshell please leave a comment or Contact Us.

Zenwalk Linux

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Slackware
  • Origin: France
  • Architecture: i486, i686, x86_64
  • Desktop: GNOME, Openbox, WMaker, Xfce
  • Category: Desktop, Live Medium
  • Status: Active
Distribution Zenwalk Linux (formerly Minislack)
Home Page http://zenwalk.org/
User Forums http://support.zenwalk.org/
Documentation http://manual.zenwalk.org/
Download Mirrors http://www.zenwalk.org/viewforum.php?f=65
Related Websites Blogspot • Wikipedia

Aliases – Zenwalk, Minislack

If you have any more information about Zenwalk Linux please leave a comment or Contact Us.

Zentyal Server

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Debian, Ubuntu
  • Origin: Spain
  • Architecture: x86_64
  • Desktop: No Desktop, WebUI
  • Category: Security, Server
  • Status: Active
Distribution Zentyal Server (formerly eBox Platform)
Home Page http://www.zentyal.org/
Mailing Lists http://lists.zentyal.org/
User Forums http://forum.zentyal.org/
Documentation http://wiki.zentyal.org/
Screenshots http://trac.zentyal.org/screenshots
Download Mirrors http://download.zentyal.com/
Bug Tracker http://tracker.zentyal.org/
Related Websites Zentyal.com • Wikipedia

Aliases – eBox Platform

If you have any more information about Zentyal Server please leave a comment or Contact Us.

YunoHost

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Debian
  • Origin: France
  • Architecture: armhf, i686, x86_64
  • Desktop: No Desktop, WebUI
  • Category: Server
  • Status: Active
Distribution YunoHost
Home Page https://yunohost.org/
User Forums https://forum.yunohost.org/
Documentation https://yunohost.org/#/docs
Download Mirrors https://yunohost.org/#/install
Bug Tracker https://github.com/yunohost/issues/issues

Aliases – Yuno Host

If you have any more information about YunoHost please leave a comment or Contact Us.

Xubuntu

  • OS Type: Linux
  • Based on: Debian, Ubuntu
  • Origin: Isle of Man
  • Architecture: i386, x86_64
  • Desktop: Xfce
  • Category: Desktop
  • Status: Active
Distribution Xubuntu
Home Page http://www.xubuntu.org/
Mailing Lists https://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/xubuntu-users
User Forums http://ubuntuforums.org/
Documentation http://docs.xubuntu.org/
Download Mirrors http://xubuntu.org/getxubuntu/
Bug Tracker https://bugs.launchpad.net/
Related Websites Xubuntu Italy • Wikipedia

If you have any more information about Xubuntu please leave a comment or Contact Us.